Tides are the rising and falling of ocean levels caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon combined with the rotation of the earth. When the highest part of the wave reaches a specific location, it is said to be high tide, and when the lowest part of the wave reaches that same location, it is said to be low tide. Depending on the area and its proximity to the moon, tides can occur once or twice per day. A tide cycle consists of the sea level rising until high tide, then falling until low tide. The cycle then begins again.
Seleucus of Seleucia proposed the theory that tides were caused by the moon in 150 BC.
During the 1100s, when Latin translation interpreted the findings of Muslim astronomers, they formed the foundation of the understanding of tides.
Al-Bitruji, an astronomer who challenged the Ptolemaic astronomy system, proposed in the 1100s that the tides were caused by the circulation of the heavens. On the moon, he has a crater named after him.
Simon Stevin, an engineer, physicist, and mathematician, defied many of the prevalent myths about ebb and flood in 1608.
In 1609, Johannes Kepler, an astrologer, astronomer, and mathematician, proposed that tides were caused by the moon, basing his beliefs on ancient ideas.
Galileo Galilei proposed his own explanation for tides in 1632, but he was mistaken. He proposed that tides were caused by the earth’s rotation around the sun.
Isaac Newton was the first to explain tides in terms of gravity and its relationship to the sun, earth, and moon.
The gravitational force of the moon is only one tenth of that of the Earth. However, other factors, such as the earth’s spin and the resulting centrifugal force, play a role in tides.
Despite having a much lower gravitational force than the earth, the moon is the most important factor in the formation of tides on Earth. This is due to the sun’s gravitational force being even less than the moon’s (at only 46% of the moon’s force).
Tides occur as a result of the moon’s gravity pulling water up and the earth’s gravity pulling water down.
When the moon, earth, and sun are aligned, the sun’s gravitational force adds to the moon’s gravitational force, resulting in maximum tides.
Tides are usually only 1.6 feet or less apart in the deepest parts of the ocean, away from shorelines.
The world’s highest tides can be found in Canada, in the province of Nova Scotia, at the Bay of Fundy.
The gravitational force that causes tides is known as ‘tractive force.’
Most places in the oceans have two low tides and two high tides per day, but some only have one.
Spring tides (higher tides) occur during the new and full moon phases. When this occurs, the moon and the sun are on the same side of the earth.
When the moon is in its first or last quarter phase, it causes neap tides (lower tides). When this occurs, the moon is perpendicular to the Earth-Sun line.